Painting DUST 1947 Infantry and Allied Walkers 22AUG2018

After the big push for my Star Wars Endor game, this lad’s attention turned to Dust. Previously, I shared photos of my first five Axis walkers ( Next, I focused on mustering the Axis Sturm Grenadiers, Allied Rangers, and Allied Vehicles.

Hotdog and Pounder

Allied Medium Combat Walkers – M3B “Hotdog” and M3C “Pounder”

Sturm Grenadiers
I searched the internet for Dust Paint guides and received lots inspiration, but ended up going my own way. I decided that I would leverage a historical paint scheme that many German soldiers wore through 1945. To this I added a few variants with a focus on winter camo and field expedient repaints of helmets and armor. I plan to eventually add some 3-color camo elements to some of the troops, but the new uniforms had not arrived at the depot as the Troopen marched off to their first engagement.

Axis Sturmgrenadier Assault Squad

Axis Sturmgrenadier Assault Squad

Here is the paint scheme I used:
• Primed as Received
• Flesh – Citadel Bugman’s Glow; Reikland Fleshshade; highlight with Citadel Cadian Flesh; final highlight Citadel Kislev
• Blond Hair – Vallejo Pale Sand or Vallejo Iraqi Sand
• Boots – Vallejo Black
• Gloves, Scarves, Gaiters, Packs, Pouches, Webbing – Vallejo Green Grey; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Uniform Pants & Smock – Vallejo German Field Gray WWII; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Helmet & Armor – Vallejo German Dark Green Camo
• Goggles & Gasmasks– Vallejo Black; highlight mixed with Vallejo Gun Metal
• Lenses – Army Painter Jungle Green
• Peaked Cap – Vallejo German Field Grey WWII; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Guns – Vallejo Black / Vallejo Gunmetal; Citadel Nuln Oil wash
• Panzerfaust – Vallejo Green Ochre
• Bazooka, Flamethrower – Vallejo Luftwaffe Camo Green
• Wash – Citadel Nuln Oil
• Base – Vallejo Brown Earth Gel
• Wash – 50/50 Vallejo Sepia Game Ink / water
• Drybrush – Delta Ceramcoat Linen
• Scatter – Army Painter Winter Tufts; Real Scenics Snow

Axis Sturmgrenadier Recon Squad

Axis Sturmgrenadier Recon Squad

For winter gear, I painted or dry-bused various pants, smock, armor, and helmets with Vallejo Flat white.

Allied Rangers
I was pleased with the historically based scheme for the Germans and decided that I would take a similar approach for the Allied Rangers.

Allied Ranger Attack Squad

Allied Ranger Attack Squad

I may add a few dark green great-coats for future troops, but thought the Khaki trench-coat worked well for my “Green & Tan Boys”:
• Primed as Received
• Flesh – Citadel Bugman’s Glow; Reikland Fleshshade; highlight with Citadel Cadian Flesh; final highlight Citadel Kislev
• Boots – Vallejo Chocolate Brown
• Gloves, Scarves, Gaiters, Packs, Pouches, Webbing – Vallejo Green Grey; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Holsters / Knife Sheaths – Vallejo Red Brown
• Trench Coat – Vallejo Khaki; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Pants & Tunics – Vallejo Grey Olive; highlight mixed with Vallejo Light Grey
• Armor – Vallejo Light Grey
• Goggles – Vallejo Black
• Lenses – Army Painter Greenskin
• Helmet & Metal – Army Painter Army Green or Vallejo Pale Grey
• Guns – Vallejo Black / Vallejo Gunmetal; Citadel Nuln Oil wash
• Wash – Army Painter Dark Tone
• Base – Vallejo Brown Earth Gel
• Wash – 50/50 Vallejo Sepia Game Ink / water
• Drybrush – Delta Ceramcoat Linen
• Scatter – Army Painter Winter Tufts; Real Scenics Snow

Allied Vehicles
The scheme for Allied Vehicles was basically just a little bit of block painting guns, tubing, and mechanical bits followed by weathering:
• Primed as received; touch-up with Vallejo Grey Olive
• Machine Guns – Vallejo Black / Vallejo Gun Metal; wash Citadel Nuln Oil
• Tubing – Vallejo Black; wash Citadel Nuln Oil
• Mechanical bits – Vallejo Gun Metal ; wash Citadel Nuln Oil
• Chassis; wash Army Painter Military Shader
• Chipping – Vallejo Gun Metal
• Rust – Citadel Typhus Corrosion
• Dirt – Citadel Stormvermin Fur
• Base – Vallejo Brown Earth Gel
• Wash – 50/50 Vallejo Sepia Game Ink / water
• Drybrush – Delta Ceramcoat Linen
• Scatter – Army Painter Winter Tufts; Woodland Scenics Soft White Snow

Mobile HQ

Allied M1 Heavy Command Walker “Mobile HQ”

Posted in DUST 1947, Uncategorized, WWII | 6 Comments

DUST 1947 – Achtung, Panzer! 28JUNE2018

I have loved comic book style WWII and uber-weaponized stories since I was a kid.  When DUST came out, my friend bought one of the fully painted versions and I was intrigued, but not hooked.  A few years later, I won a raffle at a convention and used the prize money to buy a Heinrich/Herman axis walker and two allied Mickey walkers with multiple turret configurations for some future Weird War Two action.  Their boxes have gathered dust for a long while.  More recently a friend told me he wanted to get into a pre-painted table top miniatures game and settle upon DUST.  So, I pulled out my walkers and bought into the most recent version of the game. I bought a Axis / Sino-Soviet Union (SSU) starter set, the rules, and cards.

First up are the Axis walkers of my Kampfgruppe platoon marching through the eastern front.

Heinrich - Cox


Luther - Cox


Ludwig walkers - Cox


Jagdluther - Cox

Panzer Kampflaufer IV-D (Tank Hunter) Tank Hunter – Jagdluther

More to follow!

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Star Wars Legion: A Visit to the Forest Moon of Endor 13JUN2018

Stormtroopers and Endor Trees

Its been long while since I updated the blog, but gaming has proceeded apace.  I have my Star Wars mojo going with the release of Fantasy Flight Games Star Wars Legion game.  I had tried to dodge it like a raging gundark, but lost the battle as I became enamored with the nicely detailed miniatures and the very affordable starter set.  I have been wanting to play games in the Endor setting for a bit and this was good a time as any.

Last year I bought into the Battle Kiwi kickstarter for some large scale Imperial Terrain.  I picked up the Landing Platform, the Bunker, the Shield Generator, Laser Turret, twin Plasma Power Generators, the Scatter Terain sets, and a pair of the Outpost Builder walls. I told myself that these were for my WOTC Star Wars miniatures as I whistled away in the dark. Battle Kiwi SW terrain.png

I also have a stalled X-wing on Endor project that had identified the Deep Cut Studios Muddy Field game mat as appropriate for both that project and my evolving larger scale Endor project.  I bought the three by six mat in cloth – it is very nice and will work well for many rain-forest settings including Endor, Kashyyyk, Yavin 4, Vietnam, and the WWII Pacific.muddy-fields-battleboard-playmat-4x6-777x583

Next, I needed some trees – lots of trees.  If you search for Endor trees you will find lot of how-to videos that are a lot of work.  I decided that for a large forest with two or three dozen trees, I needed a quicker method.  To make my trees, I ordered a carton of two inch diameter fifteen inch long mailing tubes from Amazon.  I then searched for a textured bark wallpaper and found an appropriate item – ANAGLYPTA BARK BLOWN PATTERN.  You can buy a roll from e-bay for $16 that is enough to make about 50 trees.  anaglypta-bark-blown-pattern.jpg

I also bought some cheap four inch round pulpboard coasters to complete the supplies.  To make the trees, I cut a rectangle of the wall-paper, glued it to the tube with craft glue, and used a hot glue gun to adhere it to the coaster.  I also glued two inch diameter matte board circles to the top of the trunks.Endor Forest

To obscure the seam, I ran beads of hot glue on the seam and other spots on the trees plus made a few old branch scars on some of the trees.  I also added roots using the glue gun to run the roots up the trunk and onto the coaster.  I painted them dark brown or leather brown splotched with red-brown mottling using spray-paints.  To bring out the details, I dry-brushed them with tan which really highlights the bark and roots.  Next I applied basing materials to match my Muddy Field game mat.  I added moss to the sides of the trees with a bit of burnt grass flock.  The most involved part of the project was making little fern clumps which I added to the tree bases.  I found a artificial plastic fern at Michaels and spent hours cutting short fronds which I stuck into little balls of green-stuff to make a 3 to 6 frond fern plants. at-st.jpg

So, can you see the forest for the trees? Endor Forest trees

I wanted a fallen tree and found these nice 3-D printed ones from Filament to Fantasy on Etsy.

Tree stump

That completes the terrain except for more woodland scatter pieces – ferns and clump foliage.

I am now working my way through the Legion miniatures.  I completed the 14 Stormtroopers using the painting scheme recommended by Sorastro  in his YouTube videos.  I did not achieve his level of quality but was generally pleased with the results. 12 Stormtroopers.jpg

Next up are the Scout Speeder bikes, an AT-ST, Darth Vader, Luke, Leia, General Veers, and the Rebels.  More sooner, than later.

For a few more pictures here is the Endor Flickr Photolog



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Analyzing Logarithmic Ranges for Tabletop Games 23OCT2016

I have heard about games and seen some discussions on using Logarithmic Scaling for ground scales to compress the ranges so that long range weapon platforms (notably artillery or tank guns) can be used on the same gaming board with short range weapons. It is a straight forward mathematical exercise to do this, but the compression factors will create some weird visual anomalies and necessitate using sophisticated Die Modifiers (DM) adjustments at those long ranges that seem a bit out of kilter with the actual measured tabletop range.

What follows is my analysis of the M16A1 rifle used in Vietnam as an example (all mathematical errors are clearly mine and reflect the 35 years since I did real math) and trying to develop an effective logarithmic tabletop scale for 28mm games.

Wikipedia has a nice article on M-16s referencing army weapons data when fired from rest cited in this report ( and duplicated in the M-16 Wikipedia entry (

Let’s apply the probabilities to a D20 roll, where you need to roll 20 or less and we will apply a positive die modifier based on the range. So for the case of 300 Meters the M16A1 DM is Zero, for 600 Meters the DM is +5, and for 800 Meters is +12. Per the report, we will ignore ranges beyond the maximum lethal range of  900 Meters for the M-16A1.


Now translating those ranges into log values where the 10 times the log of the range in meters will be represented as inches on the table, we get:

m16a1-accuracy-data-tableNow to plot them and use a polynomial trend-line to estimate the DM at 900 Meters (max lethal range), the estimated DM for 900 Meters (lethal range) is +17 as shown below by the orange data and trend-line:


So for the M-16A1 at Tabletop Ranges 0 to 25 inches DM = 0, 26 DM +1, 27 inches DM +3, 28 inches DM +5, 28.5 inches DM +9, 29 inches DM +12, 30 inches DM +17 and cannot shoot past 30 inches on the table.

The net is that there is nothing wrong with using Log ranges, but the game system needs to use appropriate DMs. This leads to some very wild DM for a small squad of 28mm minis on 1 inch (25mm) bases. Out to 26 inches, ignore the DM for range and then suddenly a mini at 30” has a DM = +17 to miss while his mate 3 figures over is still at DM = 0. This would make playability very difficult.

Alternatively, you could just use this data to estimate the Range DM =0 to 26 inches and make that the maximum range. So what is interesting about that is that the US army treats max range as 300M (which is 26 inches in our 28mm log scale) and does not train to shoot the weapon further than that. To qualify you shoot a series of pop-up targets at 50, 100, 200, and 300 meters with most at the shorter ranges AND need to hit 50% of them.

So taking this a bit further, let’s include estimates for shooter accuracy. What the data above does not account for is the ability of a soldier to accurately aim the weapon at range nor the ability of the shooter to bring the weapon to bear. As range extends, two things happen – the shooter needs to compensate for bullet drop and the flight path of the bullet is an expanding cone due to barrel movement. (The barrel movement reflects things like how well the weapon fits the shooter, the stance, how rigid the gun is held, nerves, etc.) Added to the effects of visual acuity (mirage effects) and the effectiveness of obscuring cover, camo, and target darkening (target darkening – have you ever noticed that the bright red car 20 feet in front of you turns very dark when it is several hundred meters down the road). These are in essence accuracy effects that degrade linearly. Out to 50 meters, the shooter should have no issues seeing the target, holding his aim so that the flight path cone intersects a man-size target, and the target will still be fully visible. So for an average shooter using regular vision and iron sights shooting off-hand, let’s assign a hit probability of 80% due to nervousness in combat at 100M and by the time we get to 300M we will assume that the hit probability has decreased to 50%. Since this is a linear degradation, the DM becomes 20 at ~640M. (You can adjust this to reflect how accurate you think your Green, Regular, Veteran, and Elite troops will shoot in YOUR game. I took a swag at it based on my observations of Regulars shooting in preparation for war and then how nervousness effected them.)

So with this combined data, on our 28mm log range tabletop we get these DMs:

m16a1-accuracy-data-table-comboThe net is that a normal shooter cannot hit past 27 Inches and that you get dramatically changing DMs for all ranges past 20 inches.

Personally, I prefer to use realistic ground scales that match the minis. That means a 4 foot board is really only about 100 meters and that anything other than short-barreled pistols are always in range. As long as plenty of cover and terrain exist this is not a factor. However, this does mean that artillery ends up on the table as an objective instead of a realistic threat to infantry (unless it is shooting over open sites).

This also means that any DMs for range should be linear. Of course, we usually use range bands, but since the DMs are linear, if you use the average DM for the range band it is still a close estimate.

So if you are trying to figure out if the rules you use reflect some real ballistics and shooter ability, you can perform a similar analysis to see if the DM make since. If not, then it is a game not a simulation. Both can be fun and for the case of Toy Soldiers a game seems adequate to the purpose.

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Big Stompy Mech Battle – 23JUL2016

I have been fascinated by large, dangerous AFVs ever since I played OGRE and read the Bolo series. Of course a 28mm OGRE battle is probably too large for even me to contemplate (although a do have a platoon of the OGRE Macroture GEVs just in case); however, 28mm Battle Mechs are fully doable.


So about a lustrum ago, I bought the 25mm Steiner and Kurita BattleTroop platoons and finally managed to paint them a decade or two later. I also eventually bought the four different JoyRide Studios MechWarrior Mechs that include a MadCat II, Jupiter, Legionnaire, and Forestry Mech. I also found the 25mm Clan Elementals now made by Iron Wind Metals. I managed to get them into a battle or three using the Star Grunt rules, but it would be unwieldy for large numbers of Mech and Grunt style games. With Mechs de-activated and in moth-balls, they waited for their day in the future. This older post recounts those days –


This summer, a friend mentioned SF gaming and wanting to do some BattleMech stuff. Being a 25mm man, I told him that I had the drugs he needed, but I needed to find some rules that were less detailed than StarGrunt. A bit of web-surfing turned up folks playing big stomping robots using the ArmorGrid Mech Attack rules and I was off to the races again.

So for Fathers Day, Number 1 son arrived and we gave the rules a test run using 6mm minis (some MechWarrior Dark Age clicks and OGRE tank and infantry miniatures). No pictures of our crude efforts were taken, but this convinced me that this simple system was our grail.


For our full-scale demo, I managed to buy some other clanking robots to go with my JoyRide mechs. These include the Raidar X Battloid, Excalibur Mk VI Battloid, SPARTAN Battloid Civil Defense Unit, Macross VF-1J Battloid Valkyrie, and a Gobot with a Bull-dozer scoop.

In this game, the infantry are dangerous, but fragile and the mechs are darn awesome.


There is not a lot of narrative to go with this battle, since the forces and the terrain are identical. That said, it was a lot of fun and pretty balanced.


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WWII – Painting the Panzer Lehr 18OCT2016

Panzer Lehr Uniforms – Note Panzer Wrap Tunic and Camouflage Helmet covers

I have slowly amassed a large number of WWII minis and vehicles, but had never found a set of late war Germans that interested me until I learned about the intriguing Panzer Lehr.  This unit was very well equipped, fought in Normandy, the Ardennes, and in Germany over 1944 and 1945, has very interesting uniforms, and is an elite unit not associated with the infamous SS.

My lads

Pretty much lousy pictures but you can see the basic paint job of their uniforms.  The photos are a little greener than the actual minis, but it is close.  They are looking away so that you cannot see that they are faceless Soldats.


Here are some of the more specialized troops with Panzershreck, MG-42, etc.





Quasi-available Minis

Artizan Designs made four different blister packs of Panzer Lehr which I understand may be out of production:

SWW091 – Panzer Lehr Command

SWW092 – Panzer Lehr Riflemen

SWW093 – Panzer Lehr SMG

SWW094 – Panzer Lehr LMG

I need to add some support weapons and more NCOs so I supplemented these with some of the Late War Germans in Panzer Wraps or Smocks (handwavium caveat: I realize that the smocks may be ahistorical from the pictorial record, but beggars can not be choosers):

SWW028 – Sustained Fire MG42 Team

SWW029 – Late War German Infantry A.T. Weapons

SWW030 – Late War German Command II

SWW031 – Late War German Infantry with MP44s

SWW036 – Late War German Mortar Team


Here is the painting scheme I used for their uniforms and their camouflage helmet covers (and smocks)

  1. Prime with Krylon Gray
  2. Base coat 50/50 Vallejo Gray Green / Vallejo German Uniform
  3. Boats, webbing, belts, cartridge pouches, canteen covers , slings – Reaper Adamantine Black
  4. Bread bag,  Mess Kit & Gasmask container – mix lot of Vallejo Luftwaffe Green, Vallejo Russian Green, Vallejo German Uniform, Vallejo Gray Green, Reaper Adamantine Black
  5. Canteen – Vallejo Brown
  6. Flesh – Vallejo Flesh
  7. Rifle Stock – Vallejo British Uniform
  8. SMG / Rifle Barrel / Binoculars – Reaper Adamantine Black with dry brush of Vallejo Gunmetal Gray
  9. Panzerfaust – Vallejo Yellow Ochre
  10. MG Belt – Vallejo Gunmetal Gray
  11. Great Coat – Vallejo Gray Green
  12. Gaiters – Vallejo Green Grey (Vallejo 886
  13. Helmet Covers – Splittermuster 41
    1. Base Grey – Vallejo Light Grey 70.990 or Deck Tan 70.986
    2. Camo splotches – Vallejo Luftwaffe Camo Green 70.823
    3. Camo splotches – Vallejo German Camo Black Brown 70.882


One of the more alluring attractions to the Panzer Lehr is the heavy armor assets they enjoyed.  No one walks in my unit.  Everyone gets Sdkfz 250 and Sdkfz 251 half-tracks.  Our scouts receive Sdkfz 234 Pumas to sniff out targets for our Pz IV / Sturmgeshutz tracks in Normandy or the Pz VI Panthers and Jadgpanthers of the Ardennes and final battles in Germany.  Smoking hot big cats!

More Later!

Posted in Painting Guides, WWII | Tagged | 4 Comments

WWII – Breakout at Saint Lo – Bolt Action – 15OCT2016


Got to play the 2nd Edition of Warlord’s Bolt Action game this weekend. The game focused on the action in and around St. Lo during the allied break-out from Normandy. This was the first time, my Panzer Lehr minis have seen any action (and how I painted them – those snazzy tunics and sporty camo helmet covers helped them to unleash a fierce ambush.


Historically, the US break-out was ultimately a great success that punched through the fierce German defenses and then road roughshod through northern France during the summer of ’44. Our game focuses on a US force probing for a weaker spot to break-through. The US forces were Regular, fully mechanized units comprising a Recon Platoon, a Tank Platoon, and an Armored Infantry platoon. In overall command was a Captain with an artillery FOO. The US forces all entered the board on an Advance die with infantry forces mounted and could deploy across multiple turns. Once the enemy was spotted or the US forces received fire, the infantry could dismount.


Standing in the way was a Veteran Panzer Lehr grenadier force dug into the ruins supported by a pair of Panzer IVH. The Germans were allowed to deploy their Infantry units completely hidden (locations marked on a map) with the Panzers slated for Turn 2 arrival.

The terrain was open except for the clumps of dense wood land and the ruined buildings (treated as dense, rough terrain and providing protection as buildings.

US Forces – OOB

29th Infantry Division; all forces are REGULAR.

HQ Section

Captain & 2 Riflemen; MMG Team; & M3 halftrack (command)

Artillery Forward Observer & 2 Riflemen; & Jeep

Recon Platoon

2x M8 Greyhound Armored Cars

Tank Platoon

2nd LT; 3x M4 Sherman 75mm Medium Tanks

Armored Infantry

1st LT & 1 NCO with SMG, 1 BAR & Loader, & 5 Riflemen; 2x Sections – NCO with SMG, 1 BAR & Loader, 6 Riflemen; Bazooka Team; & 3x M3 halftrack

German Forces – OOB

Panzer Lehr Division; all forces are Veteran

HQ Section

Captain & 2 Rifleman; 1x MMG Team; 1x Panzerschreck Team; & Sdkfz 250 Half-track (command)

Tank Platoon

2nd LT; 2x Panzer IV Ausf H Tank with Schurzen

Panzer Grenadiers

1st LT& 2 Rifleman; 4x Sections; & 1 MMG Team:

  • NCO with SMG, 1 SMG, 2 LMG & Loader, 2 Riflemen & Panzerfaust
  • NCO with SMG, 1 SMG, 2 LMG & Loader, 3 Riflemen & Anti-tank Grenades
  • NCO, 2 SMG, 2 LMG & Loader, 3 Riflemen & Panzerfaust
  • NCO, 2 SMG, 2 LMG & Loader, 4 Riflemen & Anti-tank Grenades

The Battle

The German infantry were dug in to the 3 of the 4 buildings south of the road. One MMG was in the center dense terrain and one MMG was in the southern end of the Dragon Teeth. The Panzerschreck team was hiding in the bocage just south of the church. The Captain and his halftrack were on the south side of the most southern woods to the South.


The first turn, the Greyhounds entered the board to the left and right. The right hand M8 spotted the Panzerschreck and used its Recce ability to avoid a heat-round up its nose.


The second round, two halftracks entered the right board supported by two Sherman tanks. Lots of shooting, but no hits or even pins occurred. The Panzers moved onto the board, but did not manage to put rounds on target.


The third round, the left M8 moved up to spot the Panzer Lehr hiding in the ruins of the left two southern buildings and received a catastrophe flank shot by the Panzerfaust which left a smoking hulk.


The rest of US forces arrived and the FOO called for artillery on the left center ruined building.


The fourth round, the US started suppressive fire against the buildings with several casualties and pins. The Germans answered with another catastrophic shot by the right Pz IV with an AT round that blew the stuffings out of the US Command tank. The artillery was delayed, but the Panzer Lehr unit paid attention to the spotting smoke round and charged across the road to take position in the far left northern building intending to destroy the Sherman lurking behind it.


As the fifth round opened, we called the game due to the lateness of the hour. We rolled for the arty round and it arrived, but did not hurt anyone directly. It did pin the US MMG, the Infantry 1st LT, and the left Pz IV, but the presence of the leadership so nearby and the tough Veteran soldats were likely to shrug off the effects.


As the 4th turn ended, the Germans lost a LMG, 5 Panzer Grenadiers, and a Panzerschreck team losing 174 points from 1901. The US had lost a Sherman, the tank Platoon leader, and a Greyhound losing 345 points from 2047.

That left 4 largely intact veteran HQ, Panzer Lehr squads with 7 LMG and 1 Panzerfaust, two MMGs, a Sdkfz 250with a MMG, and 2 Pz IVH to contend with a Regular US force with a HQ, 3 largely intact squads with BARs, 2 bazookas, 1 MMG, 4 halftracks with MMGs, 1 Greyhound and 2 Sherman tanks. The Germans had very strong right flank and strong center; the US had a very strong right flank.

The artillery strike was good, but did not degrade combat power. One MMG, a tank, and both the 1st and 2nd LT were in the impact zone.   That meant that the center needed to make morale rolls, but in addition to the LTs the Captain was within 12 inches so they would need to roll 9 or less to activate. So I would anticipate mostly a minor effect from the arty.

Hard to tell what would happen next, but the order dice rolls would have been key for the next turn. I am guessing lots of attrition with the Germans taking out another Sherman (either to one on the Mk IVs, the Panzerfaust, or the two tank hunter squads) and at least one transport. The US would probably have killed the Panzerfaust squad before it could take out another Sherman.


Panzer Lehr – Artizan Designs with some Late War Germans to supplement the lack of PL MMG


US Infantry – mostly Crusader with some Black Tree Design here and there


US Vehicles – Solido M8 Greyhound, M4 Sherman tanks, and M3 Halftracks

German Vehicles – Sdkfz 250 is from the OOP old Bolt Action line; Pz IV tanks were from the OOP New Millennium (from Walmart for $5 a pop back in the day)

Buildings – the houses were made from one Warlord Hamlet kit and the Church is from Hovels

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